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Aptitude à suivre

The devices and machines for lifting loads or people represent major risks for the safety of workers and users on construction sites. Several types of equipment (tower cranes; lifting nacelles; lifting platforms;…) generate bodily and material risks often resulting from simple negligence that good driver training, compliance with regulations and a few rules can avoid .



the essential



The devices and machines for lifting loads or people represent major risks for the safety of workers and users on construction sites. Several types of equipment (tower cranes; lifting nacelles; lifting platforms;…) generate bodily and material risks often resulting from simple negligence that good driver training, compliance with regulations and a few rules can avoid.
Even if their number decreases, thanks to strict regulations and the implementation of control procedures, lifting devices are still the cause of a large number of accidents in the construction industry, with claims making several victims

For example , falling a crane on a construction site can have serious consequences for the company that had custody of it, not only for the costs of material and bodily injury and those caused by the stoppage of the site. , but also because of the criminal sanctions incurred by the entrepreneur for endangering others, injuries or involuntary homicides.


The different lifting devices on construction sites




The entire lifting device is made up of loading devices, suspended from load-bearing elements and moved by lifting devices.

  • The lifting devices are intended to be used for lifting equipment and / or people, such as for example:
    - lift trucks, as well as multifunctional lift trucks,
    - tower cranes,
    - self-propelled cranes,
    - mobile lifting platforms with lifting platforms for people,
    - construction elevators.

  • The nacelles are intended to carry the workers, from whom they carry out the work.

  • The load-bearing elements are the lifting hooks, cables and chains.

  • The stop devices retain the carrier element to the lifting device.


Risk situations


- overturning of machines, mainly under the effect of wind or ground failure

- collisions between vehicles and vehicles, obstacles and obstacles (electrical, etc.) and above all people and vehicles.

- the losses or drops of loads handled.

- Breakage of equipment.

- The falls of the personnel during displacements on the machines.


The main risks


  • Movements on ladders and steps and falls from a height

  • Weather exposure (heat, cold, wind, frost, rain)

  • Exposure to construction noise

  • Postural constraints in a reduced space

  • Fall when climbing or descending the climb ladder

  • Low back pain (handling of rigging and stowage equipment)

  • Risk of accident vis-à-vis third parties in the event of a bad maneuver, hitting site personnel with the load

  • Electrification (contact of the crane with a live overhead conductor)


Driver training

The CACES® device (Certificate of Aptitude for Safe Driving) was developed by the CNAMTS to be able to assess the knowledge and skills of drivers for safe driving. The regulations specify the training obligation for the operation of work equipment used for lifting (art. R. 233-13-16 of the labor code).
In addition, driving certain equipment requires obtaining a driving license issued by the company manager (art. R. 233-13-19 and "driving" order of December 2, 1998) after taking


into account the following three elements :

  1. a medical examination, because the operator must be in full possession of his means (good coordination of movements, excellent sight and hearing, no addictions) .-

  2. 2. Knowledge of the premises and instructions to be observed.

  3. 3. A knowledge and skills check for safe driving

The lifting devices concerned by the CACES® system are subject to several recommendations:
Tower cranes: recommendation R 377 modified
Mobile cranes: recommendation R 383 amended
Mobile lifting platforms for people (PEMP): recommendation R 386
Auxiliary vehicle loading crane: recommendation R 390
The period of validity of a CACES® is a maximum of 5 years for lifting equipment.


Collective prevention


The occurrence of a serious accident is often only the result of a combination of dangerous operations or negligence.
The company brought to use a lifting device must therefore take all necessary measures to guarantee the safety of its employees and the public. And this, from the design of the work. This concerns in particular the organization of work, the maintenance of the device and its installation on the site of the site.


  • The lifting machine

Crane equipped with an anemometer with alarm and pre-alarm
Load limiter and torque limiter
Translations of controlled crane (stops, base)
Appropriate automatic driver assistance systems
Securing the cabin access: crinoline ladder with landing, elevator
Ergonomic seat and control station
Air-conditioned or heated and ventilated cabin
Good link between crane operator and works manager (radio, desk, telephone)


  • Maintenance of the lifting machine

Lifting devices maintenance book: the decree of March 2, 2004 in application
since April 1, 2005 requires the existence of a maintenance book kept up to date
for each lifting device. Before and after their use, lifting devices must be checked and maintained. Four articles from
labor code define the applicable rules:
- Periodic general checks prescribed by article R. 233-11;
- Checks during commissioning prescribed by article R. 233-11-1;
- Checks upon return to service prescribed by article R. 233-11-2;
- Maintenance of a maintenance book prescribed by article R. 233-12.
Failure to comply with these rules engages the personal criminal responsibility of the person responsible.
Maintenance includes a thorough examination of the essential elements every 5 years if the maintenance prescribed by the manufacturer in the instruction manual has not been carried out.


  • Installation on site

In severe windy conditions or questionable geological conditions, a preliminary study of the risks of the tower cranes overturning under the effect of the wind or a failure of the ground under
stabilizers must be carried out to assess the effects of site related to the wind and to obtain an opinion on the ground and the foundations.
It should be ensured that the crane is placed on healthy and compacted soil in order to avoid any ground movement. The timing system must be of significant size compared to the cylinders
to be able to fully play its role of stabilizer.
It is imperative to ensure that the crane users know and apply the safety rules inherent in this type of equipment: locking of the braking system, boom in wind vane, etc.


Individual prevention


  • Gloves to protect from damaged steel wires

  • Safety harness in case of collective protection against falls from a height

  • Wear safety shoes with non-slip sole and steel toe and work helmet to protect yourself from falling objects

  • No addictive behaviors (alcohol, drugs, medication)



  • Order of September 7, 2004 relating to the professional title of tower crane operator

  • Order of March 3, 2004 relating to in-depth examinations of tower cranes.

  • Order of February 12, 2004 relating to the professional title of driver of a mobile crane

  • Order of December 2, 1998 relating to training in driving self-propelled mobile work equipment and equipment for lifting loads or people.



  • R 136 Tower cranes. Checking the slewing ring fixing bolts

  • R 158 Interventions on tower cranes

  • R 377 modified Use of tower cranes

  • R 372 modified Use and maintenance of construction machinery

  • R 373 modified Prevention of the risk of tipping tower cranes under the effect of wind

  • R 377 modified Use of tower cranes

  • R 380 The use of tower cranes. Applications to temporary workers of the text of recommendation R 377

  • R 383 modified Operation of mobile cranes

  • R 386 Use of mobile lifting platforms for people (PEMP)

  • R 390 Use of auxiliary vehicle loading cranes

  • R 434 Prevention of risks caused by vehicles and vehicles operating or maneuvering on construction sites




Les appareils et engins de levage de charges ou de personnes représentent des risques majeurs pour la sécurité des travailleurs et des usagers sur les chantiers du BTP. Plusieurs types de matériel (grues à tour; nacelles d’élévation; plates-formes élévatrices ; …) engendrent des risques corporels et matériels ayant souvent pour origine de simples négligences qu’une bonne formation du conducteur, le respect de la réglementation et de quelques règles peuvent éviter.
Même si leur nombre diminue, grâce à une sévère réglementation et à la mise en œuvre de procédures de contrôle, les appareils de levage restent à l'origine d'un grand nombre d'accidents dans le secteur du BTP, avec des sinistres faisant plusieurs victimes

Par exemple, la chute d'une grue sur un chantier de construction peut s'avérer lourde de conséquences pour l'entreprise qui en avait la garde, non seulement pour les couts des dommages matériels et corporels et ceux occasionnés par l'arrêt du chantier, mais aussi du fait des sanctions pénales encourues par l’entrepreneur pour mise en danger d'autrui, blessures ou homicides involontaires.

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